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Introduction of 8 common metal materials and metal surface treatment process (1)

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Eight common metal materials


1. Cast iron -- fluidity

Sewer LIDS are such an unremarkable part of our everyday environment that few people notice them. Cast iron has such a wide range of USES mainly because of its excellent fluidity and its ease of casting into various complex forms. Cast iron is actually name of a mixture of elements, including carbon, silicon, and iron. The higher the content of carbon, the better the flow characteristics in pouring process. Carbon appears here in form of graphite and iron carbide.


The existence of graphite in cast iron makes the sewer cover have excellent wear resistance. Rust usually only appears on top layer, so it is usually polished. In spite of this, there are still special measures to prevent rust in casting process, that is, add a layer of asphalt coating on surface of casting, asphalt infiltration into surface of cast iron holes, so as to play a role in rust prevention. The traditional process of producing castable materials for sand molds is now being used by many designers in newer and more interesting areas.


Material characteristics: excellent fluidity, low cost, good wear resistance, low solidification shrinkage, very brittle, high compression strength, good mechanical processing.


Typical use: cast iron has been used for hundreds of years in buildings, Bridges, engineering components, homes, and kitchen appliances.


2. Stainless steel – stainless


Stainless steel is an alloy made by incorporating chromium, nickel and other metallic elements into steel. Its non-rusting property is derived from composition of chromium in alloy, which forms a layer of solid, self-repairing chromium oxide film on surface of alloy, which is invisible to naked eye. The ratio of stainless steel to nickel that we usually refer to is generally 18:10. The word "stainless steel" means not just one kind of stainless steel, but more than one hundred kinds of industrial stainless steel, each of which has been developed with good performance in its specific application field.



At beginning of 20th century, stainless steel was introduced into field of product design, and designers developed many new products around its toughness and corrosion resistance, involving many previously unexplored areas. The series of design attempts was revolutionary: for example, first sterilized, reusable device appeared in medical industry.

Stainless steel is divided into four main types: austenite, ferrite, ferrite - austenite (composite), martensite. The stainless steel used in household products is basically austenite.

Material characteristics: health care, anti-corrosion, fine surface treatment, high rigidity, can be formed through a variety of processing technology, difficult to carry out cold processing.

Typical application: austenitic stainless steel is most suitable coloring material in common primary color stainless steel. Austenitic stainless steel is mainly used in decorative building materials, household goods, industrial pipelines and building structures. Martensitic stainless steel is mainly used for making knives and turbine blades. Ferrite stainless steel is corrosion-resistant and is mainly used in durable washing machines and boiler parts. Composite stainless steel has stronger corrosion resistance, so it is often used in corrosive environment.


Zinc -- 730 pounds over a lifetime

Zinc, shiny silver and bluish gray, is third most widely used nonferrous metal after aluminum and copper. The average person consumes a total of 331 kilograms of zinc in their lifetime, according to the U.S. minerals service. Zinc has a very low melting point, so it is also an ideal casting material.

 

Zinc casting is very common in our daily life: material under surface layer of door handle, faucet, electronic components, etc., zinc has extremely high corrosion resistance, which makes it have another most basic function, that is, as surface coating material of steel. In addition to these functions, zinc and copper together with synthesis of brass alloy material. Corrosion resistance doesn't just apply to steel coatings -- it also helps strengthen our immune systems.

Material characteristics: health care, corrosion resistance, excellent castability, excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, high hardness, cheap raw materials, low melting point, creep resistance, easy to form alloy with other metals, health care, room temperature fragile, about 100 degrees Celsius ductility.


Typical use: electronic components. Zinc is one of alloy materials used to form bronze. Zinc also has cleaning and corrosion resistance properties. Zinc is also used in roofing materials, photo engraving plates, mobile phone antennas and shutter devices in cameras.


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